EDGE: A Stepping-stone Toward 3G Technologies in Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The business of wireless data is expected to grow in the region of 100-200 % per annum and the mobile communication industry agrees that wireless data services will form the foundation for future business. The enormous success of short messaging in many countries proves that people accept the benefits of non-voice services.

Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution (EDGE) is a technology that gives Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM) the capacity to handle services for the third generation of mobile telephony. It provides three times the data capacity of General packet Radio Service (GPRS). Using EDGE, operators can handle three times more subscribers than GPRS; triple their data rate per subscriber, or add extra capacity to their voice communications.

This article provides an overview of EDGE technology. In particular, starting from the introduction of this 2.5G technology I describe the core technical aspects and distinct features. I will provide a comparison with GPRS for data services and then a survey of the current state of this technology in Pakistan. I have also covered some benefits for operators and customers.

1. Introduction

The importance of wireless data and multimedia services both for business and end customers are increasing on an unparalleled scale. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) is a new radio interface solution and is based on an enhanced modulation. EDGE offers GSM network operators an evolution path to mobile data and multimedia services with a three fold increase of data throughput in the existing GSM spectrum. EDGE therefore provides an alternative for operators who do not have a Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) license. Moreover it also represents a complement to UMTS for operators intending to first deploy UMTS only in densely populated areas, but who can also use EDGE to provide wide area coverage of future oriented 3G services. In the US market operators have chosen EDGE as the 3G solutions. [8].

We are presently experiencing the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) as well as the higher   transmission  speeds of High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD), joined by the convenience of “always on-line” direct Internet connections with GPRS. [1]

EDGE, new radios interface technology with enhanced modulation, increases the HSCSD and GPRS data rates by up to three fold. EDGE modulation is going to increase the data throughput provided by the packet switched service even over 400 kbps per carrier. Similarly, the data rates of circuit switched data can be increased, or existing data rates can be achieved using fewer timeslots, saving capacity. Accordingly, these higher speed data services are referred to as EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS) and ECSD (Enhanced Circuit Switched Data).

EDGE, is a major improvement in GSM phase 2+. As a modification to existing GSM networks, EDGE does not require new network elements. [1]

In the US, for instance, EDGE is part of the IS-136 High Speed concept, which is one of the third generation Radio  Transmission  Technology (RTT) proposals from TR.45. EDGE is eventually going to be standardized which makes possible to achieve a global mobile radio system with many services characteristic to third generation systems.

2. Overview

The increased bit rates of EDGE put requirements on the GSM/GPRS network architecture. Figure. 1 illustrates the GSM/GPRS architecture, the shaded parts of which are discussed in this section. Other nodes and interfaces are not affected at all by EDGE introduction. An apparent bottleneck is the A-bis interface, which today supports up to 16 kb/s per traffic channel. With EDGE, the bit rate per traffic channel will approach 64 kb/s, which makes allocation of multiple A-bis slots to one traffic channel necessary. Alternative asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) or IP-based solutions to this problem can also be discusses.

One important fact is, however, that the 16 kb/s limit will be exceeded already by the introduction of two coding schemes (CS3 and CS4) in GPRS, which have a maximal bit rate per traffic channel of 22.8 kb/s. Consequently, the A-bis limitation problem is being solved outside the EDGE standardization, and it is therefore a GPRS related, not EDGE-related, modification. For GPRS-based packet data services, other nodes and interfaces are already capable of handling higher bit rates, and are thus not affected. For circuit-switched services, the A interface can handle 64 kb/s per user, which is not exceeded by EDGE circuit-switched bearers. [9]

2.1. Impact on GSM Network Planning

An important prerequisite, which to a large extent will determine the success of EDGE in GSM, is that a network operator be able to introduce EDGE gradually. For initial deployment, EDGE-capable transceivers will supplement standard GSM/GPRS transceivers in a subset of the existing cells where EDGE coverage is desired. Hence, an integrated mix of GSM, GPRS, and EDGE users will coexist in the same frequency band. To minimize effort and cost for the network operator, radio network planning (including cell planning, frequency setting of power and other cell parameters) must not require extensive modification.

2.1.1. Coverage Planning

One characteristic of non-transparent radio link protocols that include automatic repeat request (ARQ), is that low radio link quality only results in a lower bit rate for the user. Hence, low SIR for a user does not result in a dropped call, as for speech, but in a temporary decrease of user bit rate. For transparent bearers, which typically offer a constant bit rate, link quality control must be extended to incorporate resource allocation, in the sense that the number of dynamically allocated time slots fits the bit rate and bit error rate (BER) retirements. Transparent bearers, will thus be available in the entire GSM cell, but require fewer time slots in the center of the cell (where 8-PSK coding schemes can be used).

2.1.2. Frequency Planning

Most mature GSM networks of today have an average frequency reuse factor of around 9 (meaning that available frequencies are divided into nine frequency groups). However, there is also a trend toward tighter reuse factors. With the use of frequency hopping, multiple reuse patterns (MRP), and discontinuous  transmission  (DTX), reuse factors as low as 3 become feasible. EDGE supports a variety of reuse patterns. In fact, by its use of link quality control, EDGE can be introduced in an arbitrary frequency plan, and benefit from high SIR closer to the base stations. EDGE can be introduced in an existing GSM frequency plan, and that it also supports future high-capacity solutions based on tighter frequency reuse.

2.1.3. Radio Network Planning

An important prerequisite (and to a large extent, one that will determine the success of Edge) is that network operators should be able to introduce Edge gradually. The initial deployment of Edge-capable transceivers will supplement standard GSM transceivers in a subset of cells where Edge coverage is desired. An integrated mixture of circuit-switched, GPRS and Edge users will thus coexist in the same frequency band. To minimize operator efforts and costs, Edge-related implementation must not require extensive modification of the radio network plan (including cell planning, frequency planning, the setting of power levels and other cell parameters).

2.1.4. Channel Management

After Edge has been introduced, a cell will typically include two types of transceiver: standard GSM transceivers and Edge transceivers. Each physical channel (time slot) in the cell can be viewed as being one of at least four channel types:

1. GSM speech and GSM circuit-switched data (CSD);

2. GPRS packet data;

3. Circuit-switched data, enhanced circuits witched data (ECSD), and GSM speech;

4. Edge packet data (EGPRS), which allows a mix of GPRS and EGPRS users simultaneously.

While standard GSM transceivers only support channel types 1 and 2, Edge transceivers support all four channel types. Physical channels are dynamically defined according to terminal capabilities and needs in the cell. For example, if several speech users are active, the number of type-1 channels is increased, at the expense of GPRS and Edge channels. Obviously, channel management must be automated, to avoid the splitting of channels into static groups. Otherwise, trunking efficiency would diminish.

3. Interleaving

To increase the performance of the higher coding schemes in EGPRS (MCS7 to MCS9) even at low C/I, the interleaving procedure has been changed within the EGPRS standard. When frequency hopping is used, the radio environment is changing on a per-burst level. Because a radio block is interleaved and transmitted over four bursts for GPRS, each burst may experience a completely different interference environment. [7]

If just one of the four bursts is not properly received, the entire radio block will not be properly decoded and will have to be retransmitted. In the case of CS4 for GPRS, hardly any error protection is used at all. With EGPRS, the standard handles the higher coding scheme differently than GPRS to combat this problem. MCS7, MCS8 and MCS9 actually transmit two radio blocks over the four bursts, and the interleaving occurs over two bursts instead of four. This reduces the number of bursts that must be retransmitted should errors occur. The likelihood of receiving two consecutive error free bursts is higher than receiving four consecutive error free bursts. This means that the higher coding schemes

for EDGE have a better robustness with regard to frequency hopping.

4. EDGE & GPRS

EDGE, or the Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution, is the new mantra in the Global Internet Connectivity scene. EDGE is the new name for GSM 384. The technology was named GSM 384 because of the fact that it provided Data  Transmission  at a rate of 384 Kbps. It consists of the 8 pattern time slot, and the speed could be achieved when all the 8 time slots were used. The idea behind EDGE is to obtain even higher data rates on the current 200 KHz GSM carrier, by changing the type of the modulation used.

Now, this is the most striking feature. EDGE, as being once a GSM technology, works on the existing GSM or the TDMA carriers, and enables them to many of the 3G services. Although EDGE will have a little technical impact, since its fully based on GSM or the TDMA carriers, but it might just get an EDGE over the up coming technologies, and of course, the GPRS. With EDGE, the operators and service providers can offer more wireless data application, including wireless multimedia, e-mail (Web Based), Web Infotainment, and above all, the technology of Video Conferencing.

Now all these technologies that were named earlier, were the clauses of the IMT-UMTS 3G Package. But, with EDGE, we can get all these 3G services on our existing GSM phones, which might just prove to be a boon to the user.

The current scenario clearly states that EDGE will definitely score higher than GPRS. The former allows its users to increase the data speed and throughput capacity, to around 3-4 times higher than GPRS.

Secondly, it allows the existing GSM or the TDMA carriers to give the sophisticated 3G services. And with 1600 Million subscribers of GSM in over 170 countries, offer the full Global Roaming, anywhere between India to Japan and to San Francisco. Based on an 8 PSK modulation, it allows higher bit rate across the air Interface. There is one symbol for every 3 bits. Thus, EDGE Rate is equal to 3x GPRS Rate.

5. Future Evolution Towards WCDMA

The next evolutionary step for the GSM/EDGE cellular system includes enhancements of service provisioning for the packet-switched domain with the service provisioning in UMTS/UTRAN (UMTS terrestrial radio access network). GERAN will provide improved support for all quality of service (QoS) classes defined for UMTS: interactive, background, streaming and conversational. By doing so, a new range of applications, including IP multimedia applications, will be adequately supported. This part of the GSM/EDGE evolution focuses on support for the conversational and streaming service classes, because adequate support for interactive and background services already exists. Additionally, parallel simultaneous bearers will support multimedia applications with different QoS characteristics towards the same MS, such as multiple media streams handled through IMS domain. A driver for such evolution on the packet-switched side is the paradigm shift within the telecommunications world from circuit to packet-switched communications.

Both the core network defined for GPRS and the current GSM/EDGE radio access network require modifications to support enhanced packet services. The GPRS/EGPRS networks can quickly and cost effectively evolve with market needs, and align with services provided by WCDMA networks. The current evolution of GSM/EDGE, which covers all of the above aspects, is being standardized in 3GPP TSG GERAN. [4]

6. EDGE in Pakistan

Pakistan has the sixth largest population in the world – approximately 150 million. There are currently four mobile operators in the country. Mobile penetration at the end of 2003 was just 2.3% with a subscriber base of 3.4 million, while fixed line penetration was approximately 2.4%. Many geographic areas in Pakistan are without telephone coverage. To accompany recent positive economic development in Pakistan and the inherently low mobile penetration, high growth within the mobile segment is expected. At the moment the people in Pakistan are more concern with the text-enabled facility like SMS. Although the introduction of GPRS gave a new concept and new boost in Cellular network but still, people are not that much concern using Internet by their terminal. Few think that it still more costly and few believe that GPRS didn’t develop the interest for using Internet if we compared it by computer.

In April 2004 Norwegian mobile telecom operator, Telenor, bid for and ultimately won a license to operate a cellular network in Pakistan. The license covers the operation of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technology for the network. [14]

Telenor Pakistan has signed two deals with mobile infrastructure contractors for different areas of the network:

Nokia have signed a three-year deal to build and operate a GSM / GPRS / EDGE network to cover the central and Northern Punjab region (phase one), centered around Lahore.

Siemens have signed a deal to build a GSM / GPRS / EDGE network to cover the southern areas of Pakistan, centered around Islamabad.

Further enhancements in data capability over the core GPRS / GSM network will be provided in both networks with the installation of Enhanced Data for Global (GSM) Evolution technology. This component of the two systems will be installed after the initial roll-outs and will allow the subscribers to have the use of advanced mobile services such as downloading video and music clips, full multimedia messaging, high-speed color Internet access and email on the move.

Nortel Networks will upgrade Ufone’s existing wireless systems and supply new GSM/GPRS core network and radio access equipment, including Mobile Switching Center, Home Location Register (HLR) and advanced Base Transceiver Stations (BTS).

A key component of the Ufone expansion will be Nortel Networks BTS 12000, designed to deliver additional capacity within a GSM/GPRS network while positioning operators to drive lower costs and to offer advanced wireless services based on third generation (3G) EDGE (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution) technology. The expansion will also include Nortel Networks Passport Packet Voice Gateway (PVG) for migration of TDM voice trunking to a packet-based infrastructure.

7. Benefits

As highlighted previously the need to reduce business risk and make the best use of existing resources is of paramount importance within today’s business environment.

7.1. Financial

GSM based networks have become the standard within the cellular landscape. As EDGE is a GSM based technology and provides an enhancement for GPRS at a little additional cost it is considered the best way in which to capitalize on existing resources. [1]

7.1.1. Radio Access Network

In most cases GPRS enabled base stations and BSC’s can be simply upgraded to EDGE by way of relatively low-cost software and hardware upgrades, which will pro-long the life cycle of the deployed RAN elements.

7.1.2. Core Network

For GPRS enhancement, there is very little modification to be completed within a GPRS enabled core network, thus enhancing the sunk core network investment.

7.1.3. Antenna Sites

There is no requirement for additional antenna sites when deploying EDGE. Assuming high quality linear amplifiers with high RF output power are used within the BTS, the coverage pattern will be the same as the existing GPRS deployment, so protecting existing site investment.

7.1.4. Spectrum Utilization

EDGE triples the GPRS data capacity whilst using the existing GSM spectrum and offers up to three times the GPRS data rate to the end user. EDGE is spectrally the most efficient radio technology for data applications requiring up to 100Kb/s throughput (compared to CDMA and WCDMA), and only WCDMA is spectrally better for higher throughputs.

7.1.5. Applications

GPRS enabled applications and services will generally not require any additional investment to become EDGE compatible. This is also valid for known WCDMA applications.

Although the financial benefits of EDGE can be apportioned to individual network elements as outlined above, one of the main business drivers is that EDGE forms an essential part of the overall GSM evolution towards a seamless multi-radio GSM/ GPRS/EDGE/WCDMA network. As mentioned previously GSM is the main standard for cellular communications worldwide and the business benefits of deploying an industry standard technology can be seen in nearly every aspect of a network deployment, from end-user devices, to applications to hardware.

7.2. For Operator

Operators can also experiences the advantages of EDGE in following ways.

7.2.1. Migration to wireless multimedia services

The operator can increase data revenues by offering attractive new types applications to end-users.

7.2.2. Improved customer satisfaction

Increased data capacity and higher data throughput will decrease response times for all data services, thus keeping end users satisfied and connected.

7.2.3. Early deployment of 3G type applications

EDGE networks are expected to emerge in year 2001, when mature markets are likely to start demanding multimedia applications.

7.2.4. Quick network implementation

EDGE will not require new network elements and EDGE capability can be introduced gradually to the network.

7.3. For User

7.3.1. Improved quality of service

Increased data capacity and higher data throughput will eventually satisfy the customers’ need for QoS.

7.3.2. Personal multimedia services

Attractive new types of applications and terminals will become available.

7.3.3. Potentially lower price per bit

Lower cost of data capacity for high-speed data applications gives the operator flexibility in pricing.

8. Conclusion

While the tug of war between access technologies – CDMA vs. UMTS vs. GSM — continues to be debated globally, EDGE provides an ideal solution for GSM carriers to add data capacity using limited spectrum. Keeping in view the fact that GSM supports more subscribers today than any other access technology (roughly 65 to 70% of the global subscriber market), and that GSM/GPRS operators are scrambling to add capacity to support user growth and launch next generation data services, the increased capacity and throughput offered by EDGE becomes very compelling. And, in a market where wireless carriers must squeeze the most out of capital outlays–past and future, it is no real surprise that we are going to see a renewed wave of interest in EDGE from our GSM customers.

Today the position of EDGE as a technology evolution of GSM is clear. Initially promoted as an alternative to WCDMA and generally a niche technology, EDGE is now regarded as a key enabler for GSM/EDGE and WCDMA operators alike. Being able to drive business value from existing GSM infrastructure and spectrum is one of the main advantages, and along-with the ability of EDGE to reduce CAPEX, time-to-market and time-to-revenue, with regards the delivery of global high-speed data services, EDGE is a must technology.

The cellular companies working in Pakistan did not have the license for the EDGE. Now as the introduction of some new companies like Telenor and WARID, it is possible that in near future Pakistan will also be able to use this facility. Then GPRS can become a real important factor in cellular network, as the people in Pakistan will use the Internet not only for downloading ring tones but also can enjoy the streaming videos by their cell phone and so many other facilities.

The Essentials of Printing – Revisited

How To Select The Right Printing Company

If you run a business, you are going to require printing services for various reasons. At times, you may feel the need to take your company’s advertisement to another level, and you think of printing large banners, or even your packaging products.

Irrespective of the printing needs that you may have, it is critical that you choose the best printing firm that will offer you great services that you need.

You should be able to choose the printing service that will understand your needs and offer you the right solutions that you need. Since you are likely to be dealing with a large number of products, it is ideal that you choose a company that will enhance consistency and quality of the products that you need.

There are numerous printing services out there; it is not a hard thing for you to locate one.

What can be difficult, though, is when you are not in a position to tell which printing company have the best services that you need. You see, all the printing companies have a tendency to promise great printing services, but when it comes to actualizing this, it becomes difficult for them.

Reliability and trustworthiness is all you need from your printing company. Here are great aspects that you need to consider when choosing your printing firm.

To start with; you need to be able to look at the rates that they levy on their clients for the services that they give. You need to make sure that you ask for a detailed quote. You also need to be keen to find out if there are hidden charges, and most importantly, seek an explanation if there are any and you do not know why they are placed there.

You should also determine if you can afford their services. It is paramount that you seek to know the rates of different companies so that you can make the best decision. Above all, choose a printer that will offer you services at reasonable rates.

You also need to prioritize companies that have the best printing equipment. That’s why it is best if you can visit their premises before you are ready to make your final decision. You need not choose companies that insist on using outdated equipment. If a company has the latest printing equipment, then you are assured of great services that you deserve.

You should also consider hiring printing firms that have an unparalleled experience. It also ideal that you work with printing companies that have been operating on the market for long. Experienced printers will make sure that you get that quality and flawless printout.

It is also important that you choose a highly reputed printing services that you need. You may have to ask around; talk to people whom you know are trustworthy; such as your colleagues, family friends.

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Things To Focus on When Selecting a Business and Data Analysis Consultancy Firm

If you own a small business it is important that you ensure that you hire a business and data analysis consultancy firm as you will find them being quiet beneficial to you. It is important always to ensure that your data is well organized and does not stress you out when you want to verify or retrieve some important information. Sometimes you might realize that you have reached the end of limit when it comes to your data and that is why it is important to hire such a firm as they tend to control such things. In order to ensure that your data is safe and well organized it is important that you ensure that you hire a good business and data analysis consultancy firm. Below are some points that will guide you when choosing a business and data analysis consultancy firm.

When choosing a business and data analysis consultancy firm, it is important that you ensure that you choose a firm that has experience. It is important to consider that when you choose such a company they usually know their job quite well because they have a number of years of experience and they will ensure that they do a perfectly good job. Such companies usually have been active for many years, therefore, they tend to have many years of experience and knowledge, and they have gathered lots of skills. Such companies usually have already established a good name in the industry there for they always ensure that any service that they provide they do it at their level best because they can never want to ruin the reputation in the industry as they have taken lots of years in trying to build it. Most business individuals’ prefer veterans rather than choosing newly established companies because at the end of the day what really matters is the skills and knowledge that they have gathered. A newly established company usually does not have the skills and knowledge and at the end of the day you might regret ever hiring them for the job.

Always ensure that you choose a company that you will not strain yourself financially when hiring them for their services. Affordability is what is important, and if you research on the internet or ask people if they can suggest to you companies that are affordable you can be assured that you will not lack one.If you make a mistake of choosing a company that will strain you financially when paying them to know that you will regret the decision at the end of the day. You can always try negotiating the price, and you will be shocked to find that there are some companies that are willing to lower their prices in order to satisfy their clients.

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News For This Month: Houses

How Investing In Real Estate Could Bring A Lot Of Benefits To You

You might recognize the potential financial rewards you can obtain from real estate investment whether in the state or in the entire nation. In reality, homes for sale North Lake Tahoe normally come along with several advantages according to CB Lake Tahoe, thus once you have invested in real estate in this region you will never look back or wish to quit. The leading reason why you have to invest in real estate is the fact that you will enclose a steady supply of income throughout the year. The home sellers and buyers based in Tahoe Donner real estate firm believe that the majority of people will invest in landed property for a steady flow of money in their bank account, and the cash will be earned in the form of rental income.

As a result, you can purchase your own rental property given that the unreceptive returns you will be earning will be an enormous incentive to make this take place only time you wish to do it. The location you will build you real estate empire will determine the level of income flow you will be getting. Basically, once you invest in real estate business in the metropolitan areas with colleges and universities the better, since in these areas you will be earning considerable income to cover your everyday expenditure and you will also make extra money. For that reason, all you are required to do is to pick a prime region to obtain this leading advantage of investing in real estate. If in need of a lasting financial security that will see you through several years to come don’t look far. For you to realize your dream of having high purchasing power then you should invest in real estate in Lake Tahoe that will make it come true.

You will be reward by a lasting financial security when you have stable flow of income in succession as a result you will be an excellent position to invest more and more in this area. Additionally, you will have tax benefits only if you have invested in real estate. Basically, you will be exempted from paying tax thus making it one of the top reasons why you should invest in this field. You will be as well be entitled to lower tax rate for your lasting investment apart from being exempted from paying tax, thus saving huge amount of money for other uses or for development of your real estate business. In position where you applied for mortgage for funding of your real estate investment, be sure that it will be covered plainly by the rental earnings you will be getting monthly or yearly.

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The Beginner’s Guide to Blacksmithing

What Is Blacksmithing?

Blacksmithing is one of the 11 primary professions which can be chosen. If you happen to be one of those people who are interested to enter the field of blacksmithing, then definitely you’ll be needing a blacksmithing hammer which you can purchase at any reliable stores or any trusted vendors in any of the big cities. To begin with you will need to visit your Blacksmith trainer who will learn you this profession and can also teach you to craft new and better items as you go.

As a Blacksmith you will need loads of ore which can be mined from the veins that are scattered all across Azeroth and Outland. There are several ways to obtain these ores and the best way is by taking Mining as your second profession so you can gather the ores yourself because the ores are really pricy on the Auction House.

Blacksmithing is actually quite easy to level up as long as you have access to the much needed ores. There are surely a lot of benefits that can be taken from blacksmithing, one of which is by learning how to make new items. The most common items that are usually a product of blacksmithing are armors and weapons. At a certain point you will start learning how to craft better Weapons and Plate Armor. Plate Armor is worn by Death Knights, Paladins and Warrior which makes Blacksmithing a perfect match for these classes.

Blacksmithing is definitely a challenging task since as you spend your time in your job, you will soon realize that you will need to choose whether you will be specializing in Armor Blacksmith, or you will be specializing in Weapon Blacksmith. You will have a lot of access if you choose to specialize in Armor Blacksmith such as access to plans that will allow blacksmiths to create weapons, and this goes the other way around too. The advantage of specializing in Weaponry is that, there are definitely a lot of things that are new to you since you will be learning about new patterns and will also create new and rare items. The choice isn’t that heavy though because you will still be able to create most of the good stuff that the Blacksmithing profession offers you anyway.

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How I Became An Expert on Pilots

An Overview in Flight Training.

Back in time man has always wanted to fly and facts are in history books. The flight industry has been drastically transformed looking at where we are and where we have come from. If you are pursuing a pilot license you need to have a strong desire to learn. The reason as to why strong devotion is called for is because the subject matter can turn out to be very detailed and intense. To get the concepts well one needs to consider being with the experts in flights as that way things are more practical. Looking at planes, the science that has been involved in making them rise and attain great heights is very rigorous.

If familiar with some principles that have been used in making manned flights possible, people who don’t understand might not visualize how it all comes together. As a pilot you are bound to make a lot of decisions and some will be responding to emergency situations. Understanding pressure differentials is very crucial hence the importance of watching a flight expert in action. Some background in identifying and interpreting weather patterns is very important as it could be the difference between disaster and escaping ugly weather safely

In flying getting from one point to another all requires navigation of a skilled pilot , trainees will be required to learn this as different are of study in itself. Flying is easier with modern technology as navigation is almost covered entirely by the tech making it easier for the pilot. A good pilot in training is one that has been mad to undergo the calculations of manual navigation without the technology. Navigation training kicks in to handle situations where the technology fails because sometimes the awesome technology does fail. Having covered flight training, the trainee needs to understand how the systems of the plane work. A plane will be made of different systems that are meant to work together if a plane is to stay air borne. We’ve all heard of emergency landings and these are cases where the pilot will be forced to ground the plane safely after developing errors while in the air, this calls for the pilot to understand all systems of a plane in depth.

Aviation training is taking several unique approaches in teaching trainees to fly. Simulation games are among experiences that flight trainees are exposed to and they have their advantages. Since computer games get to look like reality the trainees will have their lessons looking like they are in a real aircraft. Flight simulations allow the trainee to get accustomed to the controls in an air craft and when it comes to the real flight it will be easier to adapt to.

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What To Consider before You Can Enroll for That Flight Training.

Flight training is among the trainings that you need to be in a professional place to learn for whatever reason you are getting the training for. You choose the training program that you want depending on what you are looking for because there are a number of them that includes commercial, multi-engine, private airline transport pilot license program among so many others. Choosing a pilot school can be an overwhelming task given the fact there are so many of them out there and you do not have an idea of what to look for out there.

The facilities and the expert that is training you are among the two things that will determine the kind of training that you get regardless of the field. You should choose a flight training center that has enough planes, and modern ones too to make sure that you only take the necessary time to learn and most importantly, you get the best training. The professionals that are training you are supposed to have lots of information and also be well trained. These are among the things that usually come with the experience and this is why the amount of time that the company has been offering the training is important. There is a very low chance of getting low quality with a re-known place.

Make sure also that you look at the reputation of the company because a good one will come from the fact that the company is offering good services and products. This reputation is usually based on what the people that have been there feel about the company. What makes what they feel about the company important to you is the fact that chances of you getting the same experience are very high. What makes this third party information, that you can get online or from people that you know, better than what the company may tell you is the fact that the company will tell you only the pros but these people will tell you even of the cons.

The prices is also a good place to look at. Many people usually make the mistake of choosing a flight training center based entirely on the charges for getting that the quality and the costs go hand in hand. This is not to mean that you need to have deep pockets get high quality because there are companies that will get you good quality at a fair price and they are the best. There is a website for pretty much every flight training center and that means that you can view here for more of the details of the company that you want and to compare.

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Reasons To Hire A Whiskey And Corporate Event Planner.

An event planner refers to a person whose main role is to organize all the areas of either a meeting which is professional and events like parties and weddings.They choose the site of the event, transportation arrangement and coordinate other details concerning the event.No matter the size of event it’s advisable to outsource an event planner for the less stressful event.The following are the reasons to hire an event planner.

Some occasion specialist know the caterers

Most occasion special have mutual working relationship with the hoteliers.They assist in making sure food is available for the event.The occasion specialist are able to interact with suppliers of bread products and other experts of beverages and flowers.
With the occasion specialist assistance, entertainment is sorted.

A planner has the knowledge on bringing a good entertainment that fits our event.An event planner helps to set types of entertainment like clowns and magicians.A DJ is brought to entertain with music mixes, and, for a client who asks for a band they are brought in too.

The party organizers assist in outsourcing additional service.

If you want waiters to attend to your guests, the planners help in outsourcing them. An event specialist assist in bringing in a cook and who will deal with food and a bartender who will provide drinks to your guests.Planners are able to bring in dressed up personnel who will be able to make the event an eventful and enough time for you to concentrate on your clients.

An event planner can help you find party rentals.

The reception hall that you chose might not be giving out chairs and tables, and you may require a touch of something exceptional.An the organizer will seek the help of an organization that specializes in event hires and make sure they bring whatever you will require and remove after the party.A skilled event planner ensures you use your venue space effectively by picking the correct shape and enough number of both chairs and tables.

A party specialist is able to direct you to aid supplies.

Events may vary depending on your test, your selections may vary from disposal papers and items that are plastic to dishes which are basic and to more official china and crystals.When you have decided on the category of serving to use, an expert in events, using their experiences in events, will be of help in deciding for you what will work well with regards to your event, what will look good and where you can get it from.

Helps in saving ample time.
An expert with occasions have the deep knowledge and ideas of anything to do with events.As a client, there are specifics about the party that don’t need to disturb you.Once the initial strategy meeting is done with a planner, you leave the rest to them, therefore saving your time.

Finally, no matter, your party magnitude, it’s good to employ party planners.Both time and funds is saved.

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Advantages of Charter Schools.

It is important to note that there are many options currently available where parents can choose where to take their children for learning. Gone are the days when parents had only two options to decide whether they are taking their children at the public schools or the nearby expensive private schools. There are different varieties of schools parents can decide than before, and this has led to increased freedom on where children can access the best education for the betterment of their future. The school decision development hasn’t been without its pundits, however, and the adversaries of charter schools have been especially vocal. These commentators frequently accuse charter schools of taking genuinely necessary assets – and understudies – from customary neighborhood schools. It is important to note that despite the negative publicity of charter schools by critics, there has been an increased number of parents taking their children in charter schools all over the word and the number of newly established charters keep on expanding each day. Many reasons have made the growth of charter schools to increase in the recent past, and these have made parents and students opt for these schools over other education centers. Below are some of the advantages of charter schools. Charter schools provide something unique for each child and give every learner a good learning environment. All kids deserve a proper learning environment form which they can learn, grow and develop to useful members of the society. This article discusses some of the advantages of charter schools over other learning institutions.

It is important to note that charter schools have a diverse student population. While a few critics assert that charter schools isolate understudies, most really advance assorted variety. In the contrary local public schools tends to promote segregation because in this type of education facility, you will find students from the same surrounding neighborhoods learning together. Charter schools are available to all understudies, bringing about a more diverse understudy body. Charter schools therefore help students to develop o become all rounded by creating a suitable studying environment and in this way transform their students to become useful members of their community.

Another important benefit of charter schools is the fact they have no state or district curriculum restrictions. State funded schools are represented and restricted by both their state and local district. In regions where spending plans are cut, the schools’ subsidizing for extracurricular projects, field trips and non-center classes like workmanship, music, and theater, is frequently decreased enormously or even wiped out.

In conclusion, charter schools are essential as explained in this article since it helps mold children to become better citizens in the community and to be responsible, law-abiding individuals in the city.

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The Reasons Why You Should Use Professional Voiceover Services

On a daily basis, different people and organizations are using voiceover services to be able to do different kinds of advertisements and promotional videos to promote their products and services in addition to many other reason. One of the things that you will realize is that voiceover services are usually very beneficial but, you have to consider your options fast, you can elect decide to use voiceover software or, voiceover individuals. One of the things that you realize is that professional voiceover services are usually much better as compared to the voiceover software and this is a decision that you have to make. Using professional voiceover services is very important and much more beneficial as compared to any other option that you can consider to use. Finding companies that are going to provide you with the voiceover services or individuals that can still do the same is not a process that is going to be very complicated for you, they are easily available. Whenever you find a company that is able to provide you with voiceover services, one of the things that you will realize is that it’s not going to take a very long time for them to be able to provide you with the voiceover.

In addition to that, another benefit that you get from their services is that they are able to deliver you some authentic voices that have been used in the voiceover which is very important as compared to using the voiceover software. Just by listening to the voiceover software that has made the voiceover, will be able to realize that it is not original but when use the professional services, you can be very sure about the originality. Depending on what you want, these companies are also able to offer you the voiceover that you’re going to be able to enjoy depending on the kind of range that you’re interested in. Professional services can also be called professional because, they have a lot of experience in the voiceover industry, it should be another motivation for using their services.

These companies also offer you a lot of variety when it comes to the individuals that can be able to deal voiceover, most of the time, they have thousands of individuals that you can be able to hire just by listening to their voice. Professional voiceover services are always available for you because sometimes, you may be interested in using the same individual to do the voiceover again and again and therefore, since it is there permanent job, they will always be they are available for you.

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